What is Erythritol?
CAS No.: 149-32-6
Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol, white crystals, odorless, naturally occurring in a variety of foods (grapes, pears, watermelon, etc.), and can be prepared by both microbial fermentation and chemical synthesis methods, with current production mostly using microbial fermentation. Erythritol is made by fermentation of glucose, and the upstream raw materials mainly include glucose and the corn starch sugar and corn used to produce glucose, as well as ammonium salt, yeast extract, and other excipients.
specifications of Erythritol
|Appearance||White crystalline granular powder|
|Assay(on dry basis),%||99.5-100.5|
|Loss on drying,%||≤0.2|
|Reducing sugar(as glucose),%||≤0.3|
|Ribitol and glycerol,%||≤0.1|
Erythritol has almost zero calories with 70% of the sweetness of sucrose
Erythritol is arguably the most cost-effective of the many sugar alcohols when considered from a calorie vs. sweetness perspective. It has the lowest calorie count, near negligible, but it still has 70% of the sweetness of sucrose. Compared to high-intensity sweeteners, including artificial as well as natural high-intensity sweeteners such as stevia and rooibos, less sweet sugar alcohols have a purer sweet taste and no unpleasant aftertaste/bitterness. Erythritol has a special chilled taste.
Erythritol is not metabolized in the body and does not cause gastrointestinal discomfort.
The tolerance of the human body to erythritol is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight, which is higher than xylitol, lactitol, and maltitol. Most of the sugar alcohols cannot be digested by the human body, and they can pass through the small intestine to the large intestine intact, where they are fermented and decompose by intestinal flora. From this perspective, sugar alcohols also belong to the category of dietary fiber. Because of this, many sugar alcohols, especially when ingested in large amounts, may produce gas, leading to bloating and diarrhea. Some people have problems with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO, Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth). The gastric discomfort produced by the ingestion of sugar alcohols may be more severe in such individuals. However, erythritol differs from other sugar alcohols in that it is absorbed by the small intestine before it reaches the large intestine, enters the bloodstream, and is eventually excreted through the urine. As a result, erythritol is the sugar alcohol least likely to cause gastrointestinal distress. Ninety percent of all erythritol is excreted in the urine, with the remaining 10 percent entering the large intestine. Some studies have found that even in the colon, erythritol is not readily fermented by human intestinal flora. Several studies have found no adverse effects of erythritol on the intestinal flora. One trial found that erythritol increased the production of short-chain fatty acids by intestinal flora. Short-chain fatty acids in the intestine have a positive effect on the intestinal tract and the overall health of the body.
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Erythritol does not raise blood sugar and stimulate insulin secretion
Because erythritol will not be decomposed in the body, most of it is excreted by the urine, even if a small amount enters the colon, it is not easily decomposed by intestinal flora, it has no effect on blood sugar and insulin, and also has no effect on cholesterol, triglycerides and other physiological indicators. This has been confirmed by tests on healthy people, as well as on glucose intolerant (pre-diabetic) people. Almost all other sugar alcohols have a glucose-raising effect and stimulate insulin secretion. One of them, maltitol, has a glycemic index of 52, almost as high as sucrose. Therefore, it is best to avoid sugar-free products containing maltitol. Xylitol has a lower glycemic index, around 15, but is also significantly higher than erythritol.
Erythritol can Inhibit harmful oral bacteria, reducing plaque, preventing dental caries, and improving oral health.
Eating sugar can lead to oral problems such as dental caries. The harmful bacteria in the mouth are able to metabolize sugar and in this metabolic process, release acids that erode tooth enamel. Sugar alcohols cannot be metabolized by oral bacteria. Not only that, but one study found that erythritol and xylitol can directly inhibit the growth of oral bacteria.
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